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Pause and Recall: A Framework to Scaffold Higher Cognitive Thinking in Traditional Lecture Class

Wednesday 3 July: Conference day one, 2:30pm – 3:00pm parallel session



Room 10 – 303-B07 Sem



Noopur Joshi
National University of Singapore, Singapore

Dr Siu-Kit Lau
National University of Singapore, Singapore

Dr Ming Fai Pang
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Stephen Siu Yu Lau
National University of Singapore, Hong Kong



Architecture students are attuned to substantial interaction with peers and teachers in their design studios, which have a low student-teacher ratio that permits this. On the contrary, preparatory courses are predominantly taught in traditional lecture classes with a high student-teacher ratio that impedes such a synergy. Inadequate levels of engagement and interaction lead to diminished motivation and eventually lower student learning outcomes. Deliberate pauses between long lectures to stimulate interaction is known to be a powerful tool to retain attention, boost motivation and improve performance. However, it is challenging to execute such a ‘pause and recall’ strategy efficiently is a large class. To implement this in a preparatory module in Architecture, Wifi-enabled devices were used as ‘clickers’ that allowed students to be actively involved with the content during the ‘pause’, participate in class discussions and pose questions as they surfaced without getting the negative attention of their peers. For this mixed-method quasi-experimental study, students’ approach to learning (using Biggs’ R-SPQ-2F questionnaire), their perception of using clickers (using a survey) and learning outcome as per Bloom’s Taxonomy (using a quiz) were measured at the end of the semester. Perception of clickers survey suggested that students largely attributed increased attention (86%), improved understanding of content (78%) and motivation (75%) to the use of clickers. Deep learners reflected greater motivation to use clickers (rs=0.369, p=0.001). Statistical non-parametric tests showed a strong correlation between positive attitude towards clickers and higher cognitive level performance (rs= 0.246, p= 0.029). During the student feedback, students reported that they found the lecture sessions engaging and were prompted to learn the content at a deeper level. Personal interviews will be conducted to confirm the findings.The timing and design of ‘clicker’ activities to steer discussions that guided students to think deeper significantly improved students’ higher cognitive learning. The paper discusses a framework for implementing ‘pause and recall’ in a large class that improves student learning by inculcating higher order thinking.


Presentation topic

Students – Learning

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